Understand the psychology of relationships

Relationship and solution is always a part of human life. From our research work, you can get various informative ideas. This issue has great impact on human life. Everyone should know the value of relationship and understand it.

Relationships are the most prominent social practice. From the ancient time it has a great value on human life. Every relationship demands the sustainability. But to continue a better relationship you should understand the rear psychological approach behind it. A good relationship makes a good family and good families create a society.

Demand of a relationship

A good relationship has some demands of its own. According to our research relationship creates by the communication of two individual persons. There are several kinds of relationships and every relationship has its own requirements. A better understanding is the basement of a healthy relationship. If two persons can’t understand each other properly there can never build up a good communication. Everyone should hold a mentality to compromise with each other for the betterment of relationships.

A good relationship is very much essential for a good life. Any kind of turmoil can finish a good relationship. That’s why when you are in a relationship both persons should know the psychology of each other. One should respect the other person’s emotion. To handle a relationship first you should know the reason of being with each other.

Every person has some expectation toward his/her partner. So, opposite person should know it very well and fulfil this to continue a healthy relationship. If there any problem arises between two people then soon they should find it out and get a solution for it. Relationship is very much important to live a life. Nobody can live alone.

Relationship Pressure and how to handle it

Relationships are the most complicated things for every human life. Relationship problem can demand for a psychological consultation. Our studies at www.newpsychology.com have various suggestions to solve such problems. Just need to take better suggestion. For this you have to visit our website. You can get proper information with a solving solution.

Relationship is a bonding or mental attachment with each other. It is said that a relationship is like a kid who needs proper care and attention to grow it up. It’s an association of two different minds. Relationships are formed on various reasons like social and personal. All the relationships are regulated by proper culture and customs. Just need a mutual agreement for good relationships.

How to maintain a healthy relationship

Our daily life is getting so stressful nowadays. Financial requirements are growing so high that most of the times people run behind a good career. As per our research result, people are facing various relationship problems. Most common problems in a relationship are money, sex and arguments. Even people who are not in a relationship can face emotional turmoil like loneliness, emptiness or rejection because they are finding love but not getting accepted properly.

Maintaining a healthy relationship there need to give each other emotional support. There must have a compromising attitude toward your partner. At the same time you should be judgemental and convincing before taking or giving any suggestion to each other. There should be a balance between the needs of two people.

If you are sick of finding and facing relationship problems then you must need to take a professional suggestion. A good consultation can give you a tension free life beyond bad relationship headache. A professional consultant can give you a proper insight how to maintain and cherish a healthy and happy relationship.

Relationship problems and solutions

 

Several therapy approaches have been designed for couples in particular, such as Imago Relationship Therapy, but any type of therapy can help with relationship issues. In fact, many people address their relationship problems through individual therapy, and then they apply that learning in context with their partners.

Here are some of the general ways to solve most relationship problems:

Communicating – Talk about the problems you are facing one on one with your partner. Voice your opinion. Communicate more in general. Let your partner know how you feel.

Trusting One Another – Believe in one another and have some faith in the relationship. A relationship has to have trust in order to thrive.

Compromising – Sometimes you can’t always get what you want or have things go the way you would like it to go. Sometimes you will find that you have to make compromises in order for the relationship to move forward.

Staying Positive – Even if things are going too well, try to look on the bright side of things. Remember what made you fall in love with your partner. Think about the happy times. Have a positive outlook on things.

And remember : the first and most important principle in resolving conflict in relationships, especially in marriage, is to love one another as Christ has loved us.

Study looks at risk factors for HIV in U.S. Navy and Marines during 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'

 Same-sex partners and inconsistent condom use were among the major risk factors for HIV infection among U.S. Navy and Marines personnel during the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT) era, reports a study in the October 1 issue of JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.

"[M]ale-to-male sexual contact was a much more common mode of infection than previously reported," reports the new study, led by Shilpa Hakre, DrPH, MPH, of the US Military HIV Research Program, Rockville, Md. The researchers add, "Several opportunities for primary prevention messaging now possible after DADT repeal are evident."

What Factors Affected HIV Risk Under 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'? The survey study included 250 U.S. Navy and Marines personnel newly diagnosed as HIV positive from 2005 to 2010 — while DADT was in place. "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" was repealed in 2011, ending the ban on openly homosexual individuals serving in the U.S. Armed Forces.

Participants in the anonymous online survey were asked about their sexual behaviors and other potential risk factors in the three years before acquiring HIV infection. The subjects were identified through the Navy Bloodborne Infection Management Center, which is responsible for HIV screening, prevention, care, and management. Sixty-four HIV-infected Sailors and Marines responded to the survey.

The most frequent risk factor was same-sex contact, reported by 84 percent of respondents. Fifty-five percent said they only had sex with men during the three-year period before they became infected. During this time, about half had concurrent relationships with different partners during this time. Sex with non-service members appeared to be another risk factor for HIV.

Most of the HIV-infected personnel reported using condoms rarely or inconsistently, especially for anal sex. Other risky sexual behaviors were common as well, such as meeting "new, casual, or temporary" partners at bars or clubs or on the Internet. Alcohol use appeared to contribute to risky behaviors.

"More than three-quarters of respondents were surprised at their HIV test result," Dr Hakre and coauthors write. Many reported low condom use because they knew or trusted their partner and their partner's HIV status. The findings suggest that the infected Sailors and Marines underestimated their individual risk of acquiring HIV

In the Navy and Marines as in the civilian population, men who have sex with men account for most new cases of HIV infection. The new survey finds a higher rate of male-to-male sexual contact than in previous military studies — possibly reflecting "liberalized responses due to DADT repeal effects," the researchers write. In the past, some military personnel with sexually transmitted infections have sought care in the civilian community, for fear of being discharged if their sexual orientation is revealed while receiving care at military health facilities.

The findings help to clarify the risk factors for HIV Armed Forces personnel, and highlight opportunities for prevention efforts — particularly promoting condom use. Now that "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" is no longer in force, prevention efforts for military personnel may be more targeted more openly and effectively, Dr Hakre and coauthors believe. They conclude, "DADT repeal may afford opportunities for facilitating necessary primary HIV prevention strategies such as those targeting condom use and newer social outlets such as Internet networking."


Journal Reference:

  1. Hakre, Shilpa; Armstrong, Adam W.; O'Connell, Robert J.; Michael, Nelson L.; Scott, Paul T.; Brett-Major, David M. A Pilot Online Survey Assessing Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition in the Navy and Marine Corps, 2005–2010. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, October 1, 2012; 61 (2): 125-130 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31826a15db

Survey sheds light on high victimization rates in Alaska

Nearly 60 percent of women in Alaska have experienced intimate partner violence, sexual violence or both over the course of their lifetime, according to the Alaska Victimization Survey, an ongoing assessment of violence against women in the state.

The survey is administered by RTI International in partnership with the Justice Center at the University of Alaska Anchorage.

Now in its third year, the survey offers the first definitive measures of the frequency and prevalence of intimate partner and sexual violence against women in the state of Alaska. The data have helped advance efforts of policy makers and others who are working to prevent and reduce violence and its associated personal and public costs. The survey includes questions about incidents of intimate partner violence and sexual violence over the course of a participant's lifetime as well as in the past year. The project is supported by victim advocacy groups and tribal organizations in Alaska.

"There is a critical need for valid, consistent and reliable data on the scope and nature of intimate partner violence against women everywhere using uniform definitions and survey methods," said David Roe, the project's director at RTI. "The data gathered through this survey have the potential to make a significant impact on the lives of individuals directly affected by intimate partner violence, sexual violence and stalking in Alaska, where past studies have suggested victimization rates far higher than the rest of the United States."

The original 2010 survey was designed to establish a baseline for statewide intimate partner and sexual violence estimates for females over age 18 and sampled women from all over Alaska. The 2011 and 2012 surveys were aimed at gathering data from particular cities and communities. The 2011 survey focused on residents of Fairbanks, Anchorage, Bristol Bay and Juneau, and the 2012 survey included the rural areas of Kodiak Island, Sitka and Bethel.

While 2012 results are currently being analyzed, 2011 results showed that fifty percent of women living in Fairbanks have experienced intimate partner violence, and in Juneau, 35 percent of women have experienced sexual violence.

As survey administrator, the RTI team is responsible for assisting with and advising questionnaire design, telephone interviewing systems testing, interviewer training, data collection management and oversight, sampling, and weighting. The data is analyzed and disseminated by the Justice Center at the University of Alaska Anchorage.

"In all of our victimization surveys, the safety of our respondents is always our primary concern," said André Rosay, the principal investigator for the Alaska Victimization Survey. "RTI brings significant expertise in conducting sensitive surveys and is committed to maximizing the safety of all respondents."

Funding for the project is provided by the Alaska Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault, with supplemental funding from the Office of the Governor Sean Parnell. The survey is part of Governor Parnell's initiative to end the epidemic of sexual assault and domestic violence and to make Alaska the national leader in combating these issues. RTI and the UAA Justice Center are currently planning the 2013 survey, which will focus on additional rural areas.

"We are continuing to help the UAA Justice Center build the understanding of this widespread problem by collecting data in specific geographic areas of interest." Roe said. "Our hope is to continue this partnership well into the future, as it truly reflects RTI's mission to improve the human condition by turning knowledge into practice."

Additional information and survey results can be found online: http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/avs

Signing in babies does not accelerate language development, study suggests

— Researchers from the University of Hertfordshire have found no evidence to support claims that using baby signing with babies helps to accelerate their language development. In a paper to be published in Child Development, researchers conducted a controlled study to evaluate the benefits of symbolic gesture or baby sign.

Baby sign is used by many parents to communicate with their babies before he or she is able to talk. It is claimed that baby signing helps babies learn to talk, increases their vocabulary as well as improving the bonding between mother and baby.

The team of researchers led by Dr Liz Kirk, from the University of Hertfordshire's Department of Psychology, recruited forty mother-baby pairs to the study when the babies were eight months old. Every mother-baby pair was randomly allocated to either a gesture or no gesture condition, and each baby's development was systematically tracked over a twelve-month period.

Dr Liz Kirk said: "Although babies learnt the gestures and used them to communicate long before they started talking, they did not learn the associated words any quicker than the non-gesturing babies, nor did they did they show enhanced language development."

However, of significant interest, the study's findings did reveal that mothers who gestured with their babies were more responsive to their babies' non-verbal clues and encouraged them to think of their baby as an individual with a mind. This has great potential in clinical situations where early gestures from babies or young children may provide timely interventions where there is risk of language delay or impairment.


Journal Reference:

  1. Elizabeth Kirk, Neil Howlett, Karen J. Pine, Ben C. Fletcher. To Sign or Not to Sign? The Impact of Encouraging Infants to Gesture on Infant Language and Maternal Mind-Mindedness. Child Development, 2012; DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01874.x

All healthcare professionals need training to deal with the sexual needs of patients, study finds

Providing healthcare staff with a one-day training course on dealing with the sexual needs of people with an acquired physical disability gave them greater understanding of the issues patients faced and enabled them to address intimate questions more comfortably and proactively.

The findings were so encouraging that the authors of the study, published in the November issue of the Journal of Advanced Nursing, are calling for all healthcare practitioners to receive sexuality training, regardless of their role or the area of healthcare they work in.

Researchers surveyed 29 nurses, allied health professionals and care staff, before and after the course, on their ability and confidence to address sexual issues with patients. They also held in-depth interviews with 12 of them. All age ranges were represented (20 to 55 plus), the majority were female (79 per cent) and most had been working at their current hospital for one to five years (41 per cent).

"Changes associated with an acquired physical disability can diminish a person's self-esteem, sense of attractiveness, relationships and sexual functioning" explains lead author Agnes Higgins, Professor of Mental Health at the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

"Previous research suggests that people with physical disability are dissatisfied with the quality of information and support around sexuality during their rehabilitation."

Subjects addressed during the course included the impact of disability on sexual expression, how to deal with patients' sexual behaviour in the hospital setting and responding to questions such as whether they will be able to have sex in the future.

Key findings included:

  • Participants rated their knowledge of 13 key areas related to patients' sexuality, including rights, aging, communication and help with specific medical conditions. The mean score was 1.9 out of four before the course and 2.5 after the course — the equivalent of a 31.5 per cent increase in knowledge.
  • The biggest rises in knowledge were in sexual rights and disability and brain injury and sexuality (both up 0.8 out of four). Other top increases included the impact of a stroke on sexuality and managing 'inappropriate' sexual behaviour (both up 0.7).
  • Participants also rated their ability to deal with 15 situations, ranging from seeing a patient engaging in sexual behaviour to seeking advice on their future sexual ability. The mean score was 2.1 out of four before the course and 2.6 after the course — the equivalent of a 23.5 per cent increase in ability.
  • The biggest rises in ability were how to deal with walking in on a patient who was masturbating or engaged in sexual foreplay with their partner (both up 0.8). Other top increases included how to respond to a patient who asked if it was OK for them to have sex and advising young and old patients who wonder if they will ever have an erection or orgasm again (all up 0.7).

Staff reported finding the course very helpful.

One participant said it made them more able to respond to difficult issues in a sensitive manner. "I'm less uncomfortable and if they [patients] raise an issue, even in a joking manner, I'm kind of happy to say 'Well is that an issue for you… would you like to talk about that a little bit more?' rather than just kind of laughing and then moving onto the next subject, which is easy to do."

Another said it made them think of more than a patient's medical needs, citing the example of a woman who was incontinent and keen to return home and to work. Normally they would have suggested a urinary catheter, without further exploring the impact of this on the person's life, but the staff member said: "Because I'd done the sexuality course it made me think well actually one of the person's goals is she's got a fiancé, and relationships are important, and that [catheter] would be a huge barrier."

This was reinforced by other staff members. "I like to think I see the patient as a person, but you don't always, you honestly don't" said one. "That [course] made me very, very aware that there is a person here."

It also made it easier for them to deal with sexual comments from patients as one participant illustrated with a pre-course experience. "We are in a room and a young nurse is passing by and she is good looking but he [patient] expresses that in a way that is not exactly inappropriate. He's a young guy… I feel a little bit embarrassed and do not know how to react."

"Patient sexuality is an area that many healthcare practitioners may be reluctant to address or discuss because of embarrassment, particularly when patients have a disability" says Professor Higgins.

"Our study suggests that systematic education and training in sexuality leads to statistically significant changes in health care practitioners' knowledge, skills and comfort. Participants also reported numerous incidents where they were more willing to raise issues for discussion and create a supportive listening space for patients.

"This course provided an effective learning experience for the healthcare practitioners and could easily be replicated elsewhere. We believe that practitioners require education in patient sexuality, regardless of their discipline."


Journal Reference:

  1. Agnes Higgins, Danika Sharek, Maeve Nolan, Barbara Sheerin, Paul Flanagan, Sniguole Slaicuinaite, Sinead Mc Donnell, Heather Walsh. Mixed methods evaluation of an interdisciplinary sexuality education programme for staff working with people who have an acquired physical disability. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2012; 68 (11): 2559 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.05959.x

HPV vaccination does not lead to an increase in sex, study suggests

A study published in Vaccine reveals that contrary to recent discussions, the HPV vaccination does not increase sexual activity in adolescent girls.

There have been claims recently that the HPV (Human papillomavirus) vaccination increases sexual activity in adolescent girls as it effectively gives them a 'green light' to have sex because of a perceived protection against sexually transmitted infections. This study examines whether or not there is any influence on sexual behaviour as a result of being offered or given the vaccination.

The study looked at a cross-section of over 1,052 girls in the UK, with a mean age of 17.1 years. Of these, 433 had been offered the HPV vaccine and 620 had not yet been offered the vaccine. Results showed that the group of girls who had been offered the HPV vaccine were no more likely to be sexually active than the group of girls who had not yet been offered it.

Those who had been vaccinated (148 participants), were no more likely to have changed their condom use or increased their total number of sexual partners than the unvaccinated group (259 participants); providing evidence that neither being offered the vaccine or receiving the vaccine has an effect on the sexual behaviour of adolescent girls.


Journal Reference:

  1. Alice S. Forster, Laura A.V. Marlow, Judith Stephenson, Jane Wardle, Jo Waller. Human papillomavirus vaccination and sexual behaviour: Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys conducted in England. Vaccine, 2012; 30 (33): 4939 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.05.053

Does true love wait? Age of first sexual experience predicts romantic outcomes in adulthood

It's a common lament among parents: Kids are growing up too fast these days. Parents worry about their kids getting involved in all kinds of risky behavior, but they worry especially about their kids' forays into sexual relationships. And research suggests that there may be cause for concern, as timing of sexual development can have significant immediate consequences for adolescents' physical and mental health.

But what about long-term outcomes? How might early sexual initiation affect romantic relationships in adulthood?

Psychological scientist Paige Harden of the University of Texas at Austin wanted to investigate whether the timing of sexual initiation in adolescence might predict romantic outcomes — such as whether people get married or live with their partners, how many romantic partners they've had, and whether they're satisfied with their relationship — later in adulthood.

To answer this question, Harden used data from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health to look at 1659 same-sex sibling pairs who were followed from adolescence (around 16) to young adulthood (around 29). Each sibling was classified as having an Early (younger than 15), On-Time (age 15-19), or Late (older than 19) first experience with sexual intercourse. Her findings are reported in a new research article published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

As expected, later timing of first sexual experience was associated with higher educational attainment and higher household income in adulthood when compared with the Early and On-Time groups. Individuals who had a later first sexual experience were also less likely to be married and they had fewer romantic partners in adulthood.

Among the participants who were married or living with a partner, later sexual initiation was associated with significantly lower levels of relationship dissatisfaction in adulthood. The association held up even after taking genetic and environmental factors into account and could not be explained by differences in adult educational attainment, income, or religiousness, or by adolescent differences in dating involvement, body mass index, or attractiveness.

These results suggest that the timing of first experience with sexual intercourse predicts the quality and stability of romantic relationships in young adulthood.

Although research has often focused on the consequences of early sexual activity, the Early and On-Time participants in this study were largely indistinguishable. The data suggest that early initiation is not a "risk" factor so much as late initiation is a "protective" factor in shaping romantic outcomes.

According to Harden, there are several possible mechanisms that might explain this relationship.

It's possible, for example, that people who have their first sexual encounter later also have certain characteristics (e.g., secure attachment style) that have downstream effects on both sexual delay and on relationship quality. They could be pickier in choosing romantic and sexual partners, resulting in a reluctance to enter into intimate relationships unless they are very satisfying.

It's also possible, however, that people who have their first sexual encounter later have different experiences, avoiding early encounters with relational aggression or victimization that would otherwise have detrimental effects on later romantic outcomes.

Finally, Harden explains that it's possible that "individuals who first navigate intimate relationships in young adulthood, after they have accrued cognitive and emotional maturity, may learn more effective relationship skills than individuals who first learn scripts for intimate relationships while they are still teenagers."

Future research can help to tease apart which of these mechanisms may actually be at work in driving the association between timing of first sexual intercourse and later romantic outcomes.

In previous studies, Harden and her colleagues have found that earlier sexual intercourse isn't always associated with negative outcomes. For example, using the same sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, she found that teenagers who experienced their first sexual intercourse earlier, particularly those who had sex in a romantic dating relationship, had lower levels of delinquent behavior problems. She explains, "We are just beginning to understand how adolescents' sexual experiences influence their future development and relationships."


Journal Reference:

  1. Harden KP. True Love Waits? A Sibling-Comparison Study of Age at First Sexual Intercourse and Romantic Relationships in Young Adulthood. Psychological Science, 2012 

Cyberbullying only rarely the sole factor identified in teen suicides

Cyberbullying — the use of the Internet, phones or other technologies to repeatedly harass or mistreat peers — is often linked with teen suicide in media reports. However, new research presented on Oct. 20, at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) National Conference and Exhibition in New Orleans, shows that the reality is more complex. Most teen suicide victims are bullied both online and in school, and many suicide victims also suffer from depression.

For the abstract, "Cyberbullying and Suicide: A Retrospective Analysis of 41 Cases," researchers searched the Internet for reports of youth suicides where cyberbullying was a reported factor. Information about demographics and the event itself were then collected through searches of online news media and social networks. Finally, descriptive statistics were used to assess the rate of pre-existing mental illness, the co-occurrence of other forms of bullying, and the characteristics of the electronic media associated with each suicide case.

The study identified 41 suicide cases (24 female, 17 male, ages 13 to 18) from the U.S., Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the study, 24 percent of teens were the victims of homophobic bullying, including the 12 percent of teens identified as homosexual and another 12 percent of teens who were identified as heterosexual or of unknown sexual preference.

Suicides most frequently occurred in September (15 percent) and January (12 percent) although these higher rates may have occurred by chance. The incidence of reported suicide cases increased over time, with 56 percent occurring from 2003 to 2010, compared to 44 percent from January 2011 through April 2012.

Seventy-eight percent of adolescents who committed suicide were bullied both at school and online, and only 17 percent were targeted online only. A mood disorder was reported in 32 percent of the teens, and depression symptoms in an additional 15 percent.

"Cyberbullying is a factor in some suicides, but almost always there are other factors such as mental illness or face-to-face bullying," said study author John C. LeBlanc, MD, MSc, FRCPC, FAAP. "Cyberbullying usually occurs in the context of regular bullying."

Cyberbullying occurred through various media, with Formspring and Facebook specifically mentioned in 21 cases. Text or video messaging was noted in 14 cases.

"Certain social media, by virtue of allowing anonymity, may encourage cyberbullying," said Dr. LeBlanc. "It is difficult to prove a cause and effect relationship, but I believe there is little justification for anonymity."