Chocolates as the best food for psychology

Don’t afraid if you love chocolates. They are not only tasty, but they also have some health benefits, which make them the best food for children as well as adults.

Are you fond of chocolates! The answer is surely not ‘any’. You may not be addicted to them, but you surely love them. Moreover, if they come in a different shape or color, with some additional ingredients to it, then you will surely love it, even if the taste similar. Though chocolates are rich in fat and carbohydrates, so you always try to avoid it but once you find a chocolate candy in front of you, you cannot resist yourself from consuming it. But why they are so irresistible! Let that be found out.

Why consume chocolates?

In a study, it has been found in a recent study of biology that human brains consist of a chemical, which respond to the fats present inside the chocolate and thus, chocolate is such a favorite item to human beings. Moreover, in the same study, a chemical present inside the chocolates were injected into the rat’s brains and they showed a different, yet exciting mode, which, according to the study, is the blissful reaction of the rats to the chocolates.

Consuming chocolates enhances the functionality of the neurotransmitters and thus, human beings react in a rapid manner to the external stimuli. Thus chocolates manipulate the human psychology in a positive way. Moreover, though the chocolates do contain fats and preservatives, they are very useful for heart patients and nerve patients.

Thus, the chocolates not only help a person to enhance the nervous system, but it also helps human beings to be psychologically strong and stable. All these things make chocolate, one of the most favorite edible items for human beings. Our research work on psychology can gave you various informative ideas to enhance your nervous system. So search our website to get such psychological information.

Physiological analysis behind lying of girls

You will find that lying of girls may create enough violence and chaos in many families. It is not that girls are always responsible for that. Read this to know more.

Honesty is a great virtue. Everybody has learnt this sentence in their very childhood, but many or almost everybody forget this with age and when they enter their profession. But lying and being dishonest is not at all expected when you want to be novel. This text mainly deals with the psychological reasons, behind the lying of women. Women lie or show this behavior for a number of reasons. Sometimes, they, themselves are responsible for it, and sometimes, other family members or their spouse is also indirectly responsible for that. Let’s discuss it in detail.

Reasons why girls lie

According to our studies as psycholog news website, among women around the world we have seen that the women lie for a number of reasons. Sometimes, it is very tough to understand the exact reasons behind lying. But when women lie to their family, while in a relationship, makes some sense and the reason behind this can be analyzed. It has been seen, in a research conducted by a famous psychological University in UK that the lovers from conservative families are more likely to tell lies, compared to other families.

The sole reason behind it is the fear of getting caught. The conservative families want their daughters to behave in the way they want. But the daughters violate that and give false excuses, when they get caught. Though, the daughter is not that responsible for this behavior. It is because the daughter is not doing anything wrong, but it seems wrong to the parents with an orthodox mentality.

Thus, the parents should know the reason behind this, change their psychology and way of behavior with their daughters. Behaving in a frank way with their girl children can eradicate the problem completely. Our research work can help parents to understand their daughter’s behavior. So to get informative ideas about psychological prom you can seek aid from newspsychology. 

The psychological science behind internet addiction

Today everybody is addicted to the internet. The internet has made many things possible. But what is the science behind this addiction. Know it from here.

For the last few years, the internet has reached a number of people. With the help of the internet, everything is possible nowadays. Thus, the internet has greatly influenced the social life of its users also. These psychological influences are good, but a few even have bad social impacts. In a study, it has been found, that 843 of the internet users could not live without the internet, because it has influenced their life in all the possible ways and thus they display a problematic behavior, when they do not get access to it for extended hours. According to the users, the state of their wellbeing is completely controlled by the internet.

The genetic deformation

We at newspsychology.com have done a lot of genetic research on psychology of some internet users, diversities were observed in the genetic setup of the problematic internet users with the healthy internet users. According to our studies, this genetic difference greatly influenced the addiction towards the internet. When a person is addicted towards nicotine or tobacco, it changes the way how the neurotransmitters control the brain. May it be nicotine and tobacco addiction or internet addiction, the neurotransmitters communicate in the same way with the brain, which results in similar psychological behavior of the individual in all the types of addictions. The mutation takes place when the CHRNA4 gene alters the genetic form of the Alpha 4 units of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Though, this process of mutation generally takes place in case of women.

Addiction is addiction, because it influences human psychology in the worst way. But it is really tough to live without internet nowadays. Thus, one should use the internet, but with caution, so that it do not influence the individual in the long run. Our research work on psychology can help you to get rid from internet addiction. From our experimental research you can help yourself. 

The psychological science behind cheating

Have you ever been cheated! May or may not be, you should read this text, which will surely prevent your partner from not cheating you, because cheating sometimes has an ethical reason behind it.

In most of the studies and statistics, collected from all over the world, it is found that, 10 to 20 percent of women or men will cheat or have cheated their partner at some point of time. There can be a number of reasons, which makes them do so. In many cases, the causes are logical, but in some cases, the reasons are neither logical, nor ethical from any point. Let the psychological reasons behind these things be discussed.

Reasons that compel the girls to cheat

According to our studies as newspsychology.com, we have seen in most of the countries of the west, you may find a forgiving attitude towards men. Thus, when a man indulges in an intimate relationship with a girl who is not his wife is forgiven. But on the other hand, when a girl does the same thing, she is considered to be a slut.

The world should deviate from this convictive psychology towards men. It is also found that, men indulge more in sexual relationship with girls than the girls do. But why all these things make a woman cheat. The biggest thing, which is responsible for this is insecurity, being neglected by her husband and ignorance. A woman, to a man is more a housekeeper, nanny, money provider than a girlfriend, because, the man finds more time for the other girl, instead of his wife.

There are 80 to 90 percent women who are alone in their homes for all the day and they may require some company for sharing their views. In the process of finding a companion, one may ditch a person. As a result of our research of psychology we are always ready to help you. You can get various information from our research work which will surely help you. 

Ways to remove aging traces from your face and body from psychological point of view

Have you ever thought of getting rid of aging traces from your face! If not, read the text to get some unique tips of being young and healthy.

Everybody wants to grow up and get matured without getting aged in the true sense of the term. Moreover, from the ancient times, people tried to grow up and get matured without leaving its traces on their faces and the body, even by being psychologically matured. But in order to prevent the process of aging, people do a number of things, which is actually harmful and dangerous in the long run. In order to prevent the process of aging and look young, one should be psychologically strong.

Ways to be psychologically young

Today, according to our studies as www.newspsychology.com, we have found, everybody is consuming junk food, and the foods which consist of caffeine and soda. They not only make you bulky, but it is also responsible for deforming the faces and make you look aged, snatching away the beauty of your face.

Moreover, this kind of food manipulates your brain in a different way which is not good for you. This leads to memory loss, lack of confidence, which you will realize after a decade. This will hinder your level of thinking and will lead to lack of confidence. Without confidence, you can never win and the tension will have effect on your face, which will bring aging traces on your faces. Bulky weight also makes your body like aged people.

All these things will surely help you in getting aged without the traces of it, psychologically as well as externally. Moreover, this is also a great way to achieve a long life span of almost 129 years, which is enough to accomplish almost everything in life and also make your body like young. According to our research you can get various informative ideas which will help you on your every step of life to stay you strong and healthy. 

How to delay aging?

Keep away from caffeine and all sodas, diet or else. Have less cultivated, processed and fast foods. Keep away from high fructose corn syrup.

Another useful method to delay aging is drinking sufficient amount of water daily. Then, consume at least one hundred ounces of filtered or bottled water from glass and not plastic each day. Furthermore, add some fresh lemon or lime to each glass.

Next tip to reduce aging is doing exercise for at least one hour per day, at least 4 days per week that includes a combination of aerobics, resistance training, flexibility and agility exercises. The aerobic exercises should be interval training at almost maximum heart rate for about 30 seconds followed by a 90 seconds at about 60% of maximum heart rate. Keep in mind also that any exercise that you do will assist. Activate your mind as well with reading, crossword puzzles, math, memory tests and other mental exercises.

In addition, relaxation, spirituality and religious commitment can also assist to delay aging. Each of these modalities that diminish stress and provide inner peace will improve overall health and slow aging. So maintain an optimistic attitude and be a positive thinker. Be adaptable and forgiving. Have a lot of love in your life and maintain friendships, social, family and intellectual connections. Consider having a pet in the home. Practice safe and frequent sex with your mate.

Other tips to delay aging are nutraceuticals, vitamins antioxidents, and minerals. In spite of the fact that there is no definitive proof in humans that specific nutraceuticals, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals extend life expectancy; there is data in animal models that specific supplements are effective in extending life span.

Meanwhile, there are some other tips that we should take them into account such as smoking tobacco products, weight, alcohol and etc. Body composition, weight and alcohol can also impact on the procedure of aging. The ideal body weight is based on body weight and body mass index.

On the other hand, consumption of small amounts of alcohol per day may raise life span and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Despite of the fact that any alcohol may be effective, red wine, especially those with high resveratrol content such as Pinot Noir, Cabernet and Merlot may be the most effective. Smoking various products of tobacco can be harmful and unhealthy. Consequently avoid any utilization of tobacco products.

All in all the potential life span of the human could be as high as 129 years. To age in a prosperous manner you must have a healthy mind, body and spirit and keep in mind that it is never too late to initiate.

Why Women Cheat?

Why Women Cheat: 5 Reasons For Female Infidelity

It Takes Two to Tango

Most studies suggest that somewhere from 10 to 20 percent of men and women in marriages and other committed monogamous relationships will cheat on their partner at some point.

While cultural stereotypes inform us that it's mostly men who cheat on their wives or girlfriends and not the other way around, clinical research concretely details that nearly as many women cheat as men.

Why does this stereotype, of men being "The Cheaters," prevail?

Why Are Men More Readily Perceived as "Cheaters" Than Women?

  1. Western cultural stereotypes are more forgiving of a man having recreational sex (stud) versus how we tend to view a woman doing the same (slut).
  2. The generally more fragile male ego leads men's thoughts away from even considering they may be cheated upon.
  3. Men engage in more sexual offenses than do women, perhaps giving the suggestion that men in general are more likely to sexually act out.
  4. Women are better at cheating and hiding it then men.
  5. Men are more likely to get caught when cheating (see #4 above).

And the Survey Says…

Cultural assumptions aside, the actual reasons women most commonly give for relationship infidelity are often quite different than those reported by men who are doing the same thing. And perhaps it is no surprise that a woman's motivation to cheat typically parallels our psychological and physiological understanding of what stimulates female vs. male emotional and physical arousal/sexuality. For example, adult men tend to be more comfortable engaging in a purely sexual experience devoid of emotional attachment — such as viewing pornography, going to a strip club, or hiring a prostitute — than most women. Women tend to be more aroused by sexuality that includes or implies some form of emotional connection as with romance-oriented erotica such as Fifty Shades of Grey andTwilight, both of which have primarily female audiences.

In one survey, Undercover Lovers, a UK-based extramarital dating site, surveyed 4,000 of its members, approximately 2,000 men and 2,000 women, about their cheating habits. Among female cheaters, 57% said they felt love for the man with whom they were having an affair. But in fairly stark contrast only 27% of the men surveyed said they loved their mistress. As indicated by this informal survey, women who cheat are much more likely to want and/or need an intimate emotional bond with their affair partner — even simply to believe they have such a bond, though the man may feel differently.

What Is Cheating Today?

In many ways, relationship infidelity has become pervasive in modern society, as evidenced to some extent by the large number of infidelity websites and "friend finder" smartphone apps such as Blendr, Undercover Lovers, and most prominently Ashley Madison. No muss, no fuss, just the sex thank you very much. At last look, Ashley Madison had approximately 16 million members, making it one of the world's most popular and financially profitable websites/smartphone apps.

Ashley Madison and similar companies have successfully utilized modern technology to monetize infidelity.

Why Women Cheat:

Women who step out on a husband or significant other — male or female — do so for any number of reasons, the five most common of which are listed below:

  1. She feels underappreciated, neglected, or ignored. A woman who feels more like a housekeeper, financial provider, or nanny than a wife or girlfriend is more vulnerable to finding an external situation that brings attention and appreciation for who she is rather than the functions she performs.
  2. She craves intimacy. More so than men, women feel valued and connected to their relationship partner through non-sexual emotional interaction such as touching, kissing, cuddling, gift-giving, being remembered, and most of all meaningful communication. Women who aren't getting their intimacy needs met by a primary partner may look elsewhere, trying to meet those needs through sexual/romantic relationships. Some of these same women may also engage in alcohol/drug abuse, compulsive spending, binge or consistent overeating, etc., to compensate for the emptiness they feel.
  3. She is bored and/or lonely. Women who find themselves alone at home for long periods of time, perhaps when caring for young children or even after children are grown and gone, can feel that their lives lack meaning, and they may use casual sex or deeper romantic affairs to fill the void. Women who have spouses or partners who are absent for long periods of time related to work (military service, for example) may also turn to sex and affairs to fill what feels like an untenable emptiness.
  4. She never feels fully loved and appreciated. Some women have unrealistic expectations about what a long-term spouse or partner should offer them emotionally and in other ways. Those who are more narcissistic and emotionally immature may expect a significant other to meet their every single need, and also to be a mind-reader in terms of knowing what those needs are. When their human and imperfect partner inevitably fails them, they feel justified in seeking attention elsewhere.
  5. She has an intimacy disorder. Early childhood trauma and/or sexual abuse often lead women (and men) in adult life to problems with addictive sex and/or serial cheating. Such women repeatedly seek emotional intensity rather than relational intimacy. Women with unresolved childhood trauma as well as those with emotional instability — women who carry an uneven and disjointed sense of self — can seek consistency and feelings of importance through intensity-based romantic and/or sexual activity.

Feeling "in control" over someone desiring or wanting them sexually/romantically helps them to approximate feelings of worth, importance, belonging, and emotional safety. Female relationship and sex addicts use a constant stream of sexual activity to fulfill unmet emotional needs, and also to avoid being needful, genuine, and intimate with someone who could hurt them (as happened when they were when young).

In truth, some women cheat because they receive little sex or physical intimacy from their spouse. After all, healthy adult women enjoy the physical act of sex as much as men do. They're not martyrs, and a sexless relationship may not be acceptable for some, even if the lack of sexual interaction is due to the male partner's medical or related issues. For these women, going outside the relationship for sex may be a logical, even healthy answer. That said, women also enjoy the feelings of being wanted, needed, and desired that partner-sexuality can evoke, and a woman is more likely to break her vow of monogamy because she's seeking this type of emotional connection than for purely sexual reasons.

 

Sadly, some women may not realize how profoundly their secretive sexual or romantic behavior can affect the long-term emotional life of a trusting male spouse or partner. Infidelity hurts a betrayed man by damaging his sense of home, safety, and self. The keeping of secrets, especially sexual secrets, ruins relationship trust, and betrayal causes pain regardless of gender and regardless of the woman's reasons for breaking her vow or commitment. If a couple chooses to address the situation together, couples counseling can turn a relationship crisis into a growth opportunity. If the woman in question turns out to have a problem with sex or love addiction, she will require specialized treatment to address both past trauma and her adult sexual behavior patterns. Unfortunately, even with experienced therapists on board working with people committed to healing, some couples (post-betrayal) are unable to regain the necessary sense of trust and emotional safety required to continue together. For these couples, solid, neutral relationship therapy can help ease the pain of a long overdue separation.

Companies should use caution when using unpopular puzzle interviews

In today's tough job market, more job-seekers could be facing interview questions like this: Why are manholes round? Or how many barbershops are there in San Francisco?

New job-hunters need to be prepared for these "puzzle interview" questions, says SF State researcher Chris Wright, even though they may consider them to be unfair or irrelevant.

"I always give graduating students two primary suggestions. Expect the unexpected and be aware that you might get an off-the-wall question like this," said Wright, associate professor of psychology at San Francisco State University. "And realize that no one's really looking for a right answer, because so many of these questions are really more geared toward gauging your thought process."

Puzzle questions are especially popular in the tech and financial industries, where hiring managers see them as a good way to measure creativity, flexibility, critical thinking and the ability to work in novel and sometimes uncomfortable situations.

But Wright and colleagues have discovered that people generally see the questions as unfair and unrelated to job skills and performance, compared to traditional interview questions about past work performance and goals.

They videotaped mock interviews with both types of questions, and asked undergraduate students to watch the interviews and rate both the interview's content and the job seeker's performance. The puzzle interviews got mostly negative reactions from the undergraduates, even when they were told that the job applicant was interviewing for a position like software engineer or financial analyst.

But in an intriguing twist, the students said the applicant performed better in the puzzle interview than in the traditional interview. Wright thinks that the puzzle interview "may have seemed so off-the-wall" to the students that they were impressed by the poise and "relatively decent answers" given by the applicant.

Real-life job applicants also tend to dislike these puzzle questions, the researchers note, which poses a problem for industries that rely on them in their recruitment and hiring. Qualified applicants who don't like or trust the interview style might avoid companies that use puzzle questions, they suggest. It's also possible that questions seen as unfair or not relevant to a job could be the subject of a hiring lawsuit.

"And then there's still the question hanging out there, which is do these puzzles actually measure anything?" Wright said. "I think there's a feeling that these types of questions measure broad constructs like intelligence, but that there might be a lot better tools out there to measure this."

Some employers moved to puzzle interviews because they felt that applicants were too well-prepared for the traditional questions, having found the "right" answers through career Web sites and other sources. But Wright said job seekers can now prep for the puzzles as well, using sites like My Tech Interviews and others.

Puzzles may be unpopular, but companies such as Google, Microsoft and others still include them in their interviews, and graduates need to know how to handle them, Wright said.

"What I find, when I see graduating seniors entering the workforce, is that they very rarely have knowledge of these types of questions," he said.

The study by Wright and colleagues was published online on Oct. 15 in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Co-authors include former SF State graduate student Steven Oshiro, Chris Sablynski of the University of the Pacific and Todd Manson of Indiana University, Southeast.


Journal Reference:

  1. Chris W. Wright, Chris J. Sablynski, Todd M. Manson, Steven Oshiro. Why Are Manhole Covers Round? A Laboratory Study of Reactions to Puzzle Interviews. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2012; DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00963.x

Computer interventions on college drinking don't last, researchers find

Computer-delivered and face-to-face interventions both can help curb problematic college drinking for a little while, but only in-person encounters produce results that last beyond a few months, according to a new analysis of the techniques schools use to counsel students on alcohol consumption.

CDIs — computer-delivered interventions — have gained prominence on college campuses because they can reach a large number of students almost regardless of the size of a college's counseling staff, said Kate Carey, lead author of a systematic review of 48 studies published online in Clinical Psychology Review and slated for the December 2012 print edition.

"If your resources are limited, and resources always are, and that's all that you can field for your institution, then offering a computer-delivered intervention is better than nothing," said Carey, professor of behavioral and social sciences in Brown University's Program in Public Health and a researcher at the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies.

"But the question is would your resources allow you to do something better if something better existed," she said, "and we do know now that there are intervention modalities that might be better."

In the study, Carey and her co-authors found that both methods of delivering alcohol interventions had positive effects in the first few months, but by 14 weeks after the intervention, computer-delivered methods no longer had any significant effects on drinking habits. The benefits of face-to-face interventions were also stronger from the start, and decayed more slowly over time.

The team also found indications of what kind of content works and doesn't work in each type of intervention and that women are less likely to be helped by CDIs than men.

The prevalence of the CDIs is apparent in the 48 studies Carey and her colleagues analyzed. More than 32,000 students were included in the 26 studies of CDIs while 5,237 were included in 22 face-to-face intervention studies.

But Carey and her colleagues conducted the review to assess what colleges were really gaining by employing computers for student alcohol counseling.

"There has been a real upsurge in popularity and widespread implementation of all these CDIs, and for a long time it seemed the research was lagging," Carey said. "We wanted to know if this upsurge is really a good thing"

Stronger results face-to-face

The studies typically measured weekly and/or daily alcohol consumption, sometimes blood-alcohol levels and other metrics of drinking behavior among students, and were published in years ranging from 1998 to 2010. Most of the studies compared the effects of either face-to-face interventions or CDIs to no intervention at all. A few studies compared the two interventions directly.

By carefully analyzing all 48 studies, the team of researchers at Brown, The Miriam Hospital, and Syracuse University was able to compare the effectiveness of the interventions with much more statistical power than anyone has before. That's important because the effects of either kind of intervention are typically small.

Still, in-person counseling was able to show significant benefits in the first 13 weeks in all of five areas: quantity per week or month, quantity per drinking day (e.g. a Saturday of parties), frequency of heavy drinking, blood-alcohol content, and alcohol-related problems. Computer counseling only moved the needle initially in three areas: per week or month quantity, frequency of heavy drinking, and blood-alcohol content.

The effects from in-person counseling were also stronger in all but one area: blood-alcohol content.

Between 14 and 26 weeks, two of the face-to-face delivered effects remained significant — quantity per drinking day and blood-alcohol content — but none of the computer-delivered benefits were still significant. After 27 weeks, one of the face-to-face benefits — in quantity per drinking day — persisted.

Carey said the weaker effects from CDI's might arise from the inability of a computer to hold a student's attention.

"Many designers have done reasonable jobs trying to make CDIs interactive for participants," she said, "but one thing that might be missing in these interactions, if somebody is tempted to game the system or if they are just getting bored, is someone on the other side to pull them back in and help them stay engaged."

In addition, Carey found evidence that some CDIs are delivering content that undermines their efficacy. For example, online exercises that attempt to assess values or decision making in high-risk situations appeared to make CDIs less effective.

In contrast, content that included alcohol education, personalized feedback, and moderation strategies helped increase the efficacy of face-to face interventions.

CDIs have value, Carey concluded, but to some extent colleges may be getting what they pay for when they try to save money using computer systems. "You certainly wouldn't want to spend a lot of money to get an effect that only lasts for three months," Carey said.

Carey's co-authors on the study are Lori A.J. Scott-Sheldon and Michael Carey of The Miriam Hospital and Brown, Lorra Garey of Brown's Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, and Jennifer C. Elliott of Syracuse University.


Journal Reference:

  1. Kate B. Carey, Lori A.J. Scott-Sheldon, Jennifer C. Elliott, Lorra Garey, Michael P. Carey. Face-to-face versus computer-delivered alcohol interventions for college drinkers: A meta-analytic review, 1998 to 2010. Clinical Psychology Review, 2012; 32 (8): 690 DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.08.001

Neuroscientists find the molecular 'when' and 'where' of memory formation

Neuroscientists have isolated the “when” and “where” of molecular activity that occurs in the formation of short-, intermediate-, and long-term memories. (Credit: iStockphoto/Guido Vrola)

— Neuroscientists from New York University and the University of California, Irvine have isolated the "when" and "where" of molecular activity that occurs in the formation of short-, intermediate-, and long-term memories. Their findings, which appear in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offer new insights into the molecular architecture of memory formation and, with it, a better roadmap for developing therapeutic interventions for related afflictions.

"Our findings provide a deeper understanding of how memories are created," explained the research team leader Thomas Carew, a professor in NYU's Center for Neural Science and dean of NYU's Faculty of Arts and Science. "Memory formation is not simply a matter of turning molecules on and off; rather, it results from a complex temporal and spatial relationship of molecular interaction and movement."

Neuroscientists have previously uncovered different aspects of molecular signaling relevant to the formation of memories. But less understood is the spatial relationship between molecules and when they are active during this process.

To address this question, the researchers studied the neurons in Aplysia californica, the California sea slug. Aplysia is a model organism that is quite powerful for this type of research because its neurons are 10 to 50 times larger than those of higher organisms, such as vertebrates, and it possesses a relatively small network of neurons — characteristics that readily allow for the examination of molecular signaling during memory formation. Moreover, its coding mechanism for memories is highly conserved in evolution, and thus is similar to that of mammals, making it an appropriate model for understanding how this process works in humans.

The scientists focused their study on two molecules, MAPK and PKA, which earlier research has shown to be involved in many forms of memory and synaptic plasticity — that is, changes in the brain that occur after neuronal interaction. But less understood was how and where these molecules interacted.

To explore this, the researchers subjected the sea slugs to sensitization training, which induces increased behavioral reflex responsiveness following mild tail shock, or in this study, mild activation of the nerve form the tail. They then examined the subsequent molecular activity of both MAPK and PKA. Both molecules have been shown to be involved in the formation of memory for sensitization, but the nature of their interaction is less clear.

What they found was MAPK and PKA coordinate their activity both spatially and temporally in the formation of memories. Specifically, in the formation of intermediate-term (i.e., hours) and long-term (i.e., days) memories, both MAPK and PKA activity occur, with MAPK spurring PKA action. By contrast, for short-term memories (i.e., less than 30 minutes), only PKA is active, with no involvement of MAPK.

The study's other co-authors were Xiaojing Ye, a postdoctoral fellow in NYU's Center for Neural Science, Andreea Marina, an undergraduate at UC Irvine at the time of the study. The research was conducted at NYU's Center for Neural Science and UC Irvine's Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

This work was supported by grants RO1 MH 041083 and RO1 MH 081151 from the National Institute of Mental Health, part of the National Institutes of Health, and a grant IOB-0444762 from the National Science Foundation.

 

Journal Reference:

  1. Xiaojing Ye, Andreea Marina, and Thomas J. Carew. Local synaptic integration of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase A signaling mediates intermediate-term synaptic facilitation in Aplysia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1209956109